Dairy Farming – All about Dairy Farm
Dairy Farming is an attractive business in Pakistan. With continous growth in demand of milk and meat, dairy business is also rising. With Govt’s focus on supporting and increasing dairy production locally it has become a major focus of investors and farmers as well to make good gains against their capital and efforts.
Unfortunately their isn’t enough infromation readily available for anyone who wants to start a dairy farming business. COnsidering this lacking we have made this guide specially for those who are interested in stating their own dairy farm.
We will talk about all aspects of business here, and tak you through all steps one by one.
Here is the list of topics discussed in guide.
- Selection of Animals
- Farm Building
- Record Keeping
- Sanitation & Hygiene
- Body Condition Scoring
- Milk Quality
Being major player in the national economy, livestock sector is an economic engine for poverty alleviation in Pakistan. According to the economic survey of Pakistan 2017-18, its contribution to agriculture value added is approximately 58.9% and to national GDP is 11.1%.
Livestock of Pakistan include cattle, buffalo, sheep, goat, camels, horses, asses and mules and they produce milk, meat, wool, hair, bones, fat, blood eggs, hides and skins among which milk and meat are the major products. Besides production, these animals are also used for draught purposes. Milk is produced by buffalo, cattle, sheep, goat and camel but being major contributor in milk production, cattle and buffalo are considered as major dairy animals.
Buffalos found in Pakistan make up 47% of Pakistan’s major dairy animal’s population providing more than about 61% of the total milk produced in the country. Buffalo breeds found in Pakistan are Nili Ravi, Kundi and Aza Kheli. Nili Ravi is considered the best buffalo breed in world and known as Black Gold of Pakistan. Cattle constitute about 53% of the national population of major dairy animals in Pakistan and contribute the share of almost 35% to the total milk production in country. The cattle breeds found in the country are Sahiwal, Cholistani, Red Sndhi, Achai, Bhagnari, Dajal, Dhanni, Gibrali, Kankraj, Lohani, Rojhan, and Thari. Out of these, Sahiwal, Cholistani, and Red Sindhi are main dairy breeds and well known internationally due to their distinct characteristics. Other than well-defined cattle breeds, there are a large number of nondescript and crossbred cattle in this country.
Over few years, the importance of crossbred animals has been increased due to start of the development in dairy sector on commercial lines. The crossbred animals are mostly preferred for commercial dairy farms due to their higher production. Mostly cross of local cows (like Sahiwal and Cholistani) with imported cows (like Holstein Friesian and Jersey) is demanded by such farms. Besides our local and crossbred animals, imported animals are also the part of dairy cow family of Pakistan. Corporate Dairy Farms prefer dairy animals from other countries and run their farms on most modern lines with international expertise. These animals are imported form Australia, America and Sweden. The breeds of these imported animals are Holstein Friesian, Jersey and Freisian Jersey Cross.
Sheep and goats are reared in rural areas but their main purpose is mutton production. The milk produced from these small ruminants is used domestically. Camel is the animal of nomads who raise this animal to sell on Eid ul Adha. The milk produced by camel is used to meet the family needs. Some nomads also sell camel milk in urban areas and its demand is increasing day by day due to medicinal value. If we work on camel breeds, we can find camel as a good dairy animal.
Most of the milk produced in Pakistan comes from cattle and buffalo. The rest of it is collectively produced by sheep, goat and camel which, most of the time, is not sold as such, rather consumed domestically or mixed with buffalo and cow milk.
Estimated current National livestock Population based on National Livestock Census 2006 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:
Estimated current National Population of Cattle Breeds based on National Livestock Census 2006 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:
Estimated current National Population of Buffalo Breeds based on National Livestock Census 2006 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:
Estimated current Provincial Livestock Population based on National Livestock Census 2006 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:
Estimated current Provincial Population of Cattle Breeds based on National Livestock Census 2006 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:
|Foreign /Cross Bred||3.97||0.20||1.33||0.27|
Estimated current Provincial Population of Buffalo Breeds based on National Livestock Census 2006 and Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below: (Millions)
Milk is favourite food in Pakistan and is consumed as fresh, boiled, powdered and in processed form like yogurt, ghee, lassi, butter, cheese, ice cream, sweets and in other confectioneries. The interesting thing regarding the dairy sector of Pakistan is that although it is third largest milk producing country in the world but still its production falls short to meet the national demand. It is not possible to say that Pakistan is deficient in Milk Production. Pakistan is sufficient in milk production but issue is with supply chain as milk is produced in sufficient volume is few pockets of country but its demand is nationwide. So to fulfill the national demand of milk the need is to manage its supply chain to ensure its availability through out the country.
Current Milk Production and its availability for human consumption in Pakistan as per Economic Survey of Pakistan 2017-18 is given below:
|Species||Milk Production |
|Human Milk Consumption (Billion Liters)|
To get more such calculations related to livestock sector, don’t hesitate to contact us!
Let’s have a look on different production systems of Pakistan. Till late eighties, more than 60% of buffaloes and some cows were maintained under the system of Rural Subsistence Production System. In this system on an average there were 3 to 4 dairy animals with one or two adult females. Almost 50 to 60% of the feed requirements of these animals were fulfilled from grazing along with wheat straw and some green fodder. ¼th of milk produced was sold out and remaining was utilized for domestic use. This system still exists in some areas of Pakistan.
With the time being Rural Subsistence Production System changed into Rural Market-Oriented Smallholder Production System. Under this system, on an average there were 5 to 7 animals per herd, inclusive of cow; 3 to 4 adult lactating animals, one or two heifers, and one or two male calves, but most often no bull. Feeding requirement of lactating animals were fulfilled from fodder along with wheat straw and seed cake. More than 70% of milk produced was sold either directly or through middlemen. This system was practiced by those smallholders who have access to nearby livestock markets.
In 1980s, dairy sector in Pakistan moved towards commercial side and development of rural commercial dairy farms started. A typical rural dairy farm running on commercial basis consisted of about 30 animals of which 70% were females, including some cows. Approximately 40% of these adult females were in milk during most of the year. Fodder crops provided 50% and straws about 35% of the feed requirements and concentrates made the rest of it. More than 90% of the milk produced at the farm was sold.
With growing demand for milk in urban areas rural commercial dairy farming moved toward peri-urban areas. In peri-urban areas there are large and small dairy herds consisting of 20-50 animals with nearly 90% of adult females in production. Male calves are disposed off within first two weeks of birth. These animals are fed chopped green fodder andwheat straw and concentrate mixture with target to sell almost total milk produced.
Over the last 2 to 3 decades, large peri-urban commercial dairy farming has also emerged. Targets of these farms are to get maximum milk production with economical and quality feeding and good management. Animals on these farms are fed good quality green fodder or silage along with concentrate mixture. Dairy animals maintained at these farms are considered elite animals; hence their yields per lactation are considerably higher than those of animals maintained under other production systems. Milk produced on these farms is either sold out in processed/fresh form through outlets or departmental stores or supplied to dairy companies.
During last ten years major changes has been occurred in dairy sector of Pakistan. A large number of modern dairy farms established in different areas. Most of these dairy farms have exotic animals and number of these animals is in hundreds and even in thousands. Dairy farms with more than 3000 animals also exist and with 5000 animals are in plan. Such farms have adopted most modern managemental and feeding practices and well trained man power. Milk produced on these farms is either sold out in processed/fresh form through outlets/ departmental stores/house supply etc. or supplied to dairy companies.